### 15th Putnam 1955

Problem B5

n is a positive integer. An infinite sequence of 0s and 1s is such that it only contains n different blocks of n consecutive terms. Show that it is eventually periodic.

Solution

Hard.

We use induction on n. It is obvious for n = 1. Suppose it is true for n. Let S be a sequence with just n + 1 different (n+1)-blocks. Consider the n-blocks formed by taking the first n elements of each (n+1)-block. These evidently form all the possible n-blocks in S. So if there are at most n of them, then we are home by induction.

But if there are n + 1 of them (all distinct), then the first n elements of each (n+1)-block determine the last element. So an n-block determines the entire sequence from that point on (because having fixed the (n + 1)th element, we move the n-block along one place and hence fix the (n + 2)nd element and so on). But there are only finitely many possible n-blocks, so there are two the same (in S). That gives a period, since the elements r places after the start of each block must be the same.

Note that the result is the best possible in the sense that we can construct a non-periodic sequence with just n + 1 different n-blocks. Take, for example, the n-blocks to be those with no or just one 1. Then if we take 1 followed by n + 1 zeros, followed by a 1, followed by n + 2 zeros, followed by a 1, followed by n + 3 zeros and so on, we have a non-periodic sequence involving only those n + 1 n-blocks.